Mariposas de Bolivia

sitio 59 

first update d. 14 february 2016

last update d. 20 january 2020

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Family Swallowtail, Papilionidae (Latreille, 1802), subfamily Papilioninae, Tribe Papilionini:

Genus Heraclides (Hübner, 1819)

Rio Zongo,  between Caranavi and Guarnay, Yungas. d. 30 January 2008. Photographer: Lars Andersen

Heraclides : comprises of 33 species from southern United States, Mexico, Central America, Amazonas rainforest up to Andean cloudforest, and south to Misiones in Northern Argentina and Paraguay in Southern America.

Some of the Heraclides species are marked with cream spots and bands, and have obvious affinities with their Holarctic counterparts. Others including Ruby-spotted Swallowtail, H. anchisiades and Spike-tailed Swallowtail, H. isodorus are black with pink patches on the hindwings and are superficially similar to Cattle-heart, Parides and Swordtail, Eurytides.

Habitats: This family are found in many different habitats including tropical rainforest, cloudforest, humid deciduous forest, orchards and suburban zones at altitudes between sea level and about 2000m.

Behaviour: The butterflies are only active in bright sunshine. Both sexes will visit Lantana and the flowers of many trees and shrubs.

Males are often seen along the river beaches and dry river beds, imbibing mineralized moisture. They are regel seen singly, but sometimes several gather together, regel amidst aggregation of Nymphalids and Perids.

When feeding either at flowers or on the ground, the wings are kept constantly fluttering - a feature common to Swallowtails throughout the world. After several minutes, if undisturbed, they eventually relax and fully outspread their wings.

The larvae feed on various species of the Rue,Rutaceae family: including Limes, Lemon, Citrus, Sapote, Casimiroa, Lime Prickly Ash, Zanthoxylum species and Peppervines, Piper species.

All Heraclides caterpillars are equipped with an large extrusible forked appendage called an osmeterium which is situated behind the head. This organ is everted if the caterpillar is molested, and gives off a noxious pheromone containing isobutyric acid, which is used as a defence against ants.

Heraclides hyppason hippasonides (Grose-Smith, 1902). Rio Broncini, Caranavi, elev. 800 m. d.  8 january 2015. Photographer: Peter MøllmannPapilio isidorus. Rio Broncini, Yungas, Bolivia d. 2 februar 2006. Fotograf: Lars AndersenPapilio anchisiades. Tocana, Yungas, Bolivia d. 22 januar 2006. Fotograf: Lars AndersenRuby-spotted Sweallowtail, Heraclides anchisiades capys (Hübner, 1809).  Mallacita, Yungas, Bolivia january 2015. Photographer: Peter Møllmann

Cramer's Swallowtail Spike-tailed Swallowtail Ruby-spotted Swallowtail Ruby-spotted Swallowtail
Heraclides hyppason hippasonides Heraclides isidorus Heraclides anchisiades Heraclides anchisiades capys
(Grose-Smith, 1902) (E. Doubleday, 1846) (Esper, 1788) (Hübner, 1809)
Photographer; Peter Møllmann Photographer; Lars Andersen Photographer; Lars Andersen Photographer; Peter Møllmann

Heraclides torquatus torquatus . Taipiplaya, Caranavi, elev. 800 m. d.  22 January 2012. Photographer: Lars AndersenHeraclides lamarchei.  Caranavi d. 24 january 2010.Photographer; Lars AndersenHeraclides astyalus phanias. Caranavi, elev. 800 m. d.  16 december 2014. Photographer: Peter MøllmannHeraclides androgeus androgeus. Caranavi, Yungas. d. 9 february 2007. Photographer: Lars Andersen

Band-gapped Swallowtail Bolivian Swallowtail Broad-banded Swallowtail Androgeus Swallowtail
Heraclides torquatus Heraclides lamarchei Heraclides astyalus phanias Heraclides androgeus
(Cramer, 1777) (Staudinger, 1892) (Rothschild & Jordan, 1906) (Cramer, 1775)
Photographer; Lars Andersen Photographer; Lars Andersen Photographer; Peter Møllmann Photographer; Lars Andersen

Heraclides paeon. Coroico, 1750 m.a.. Yungas. d. 24 February 2008. Photographer: Lars AndersenHeraclides thoas cinyras. Caranavi d. 29 january 2010.Photographer; Lars AndersenHeraclides thoas brasiliensis. Caranavi elev. 860 m. d.  1 February 2012. Photographer: Lars Andersen

Straight-banded Swallowtail Thoas Swallowtail Thoas Swallowtail
Heraclides paeon Heraclides thoas cinyras Heraclides thoas brasiliensis
(Boisduval, 1836) (Ménétriés, 1857) (Rothschild & Jordan, 1906)
Photographer; Lars Andersen Photographer; Lars Andersen Photographer; Lars Andersen

Thoas Swallowtail, Heraclides thoas ssp. brasiliensis. Caranavi Highlands, Yungas, Bolivia  january 28, 2019. Photographer; Peter Møllmann

Thoas Swallowtail, Heraclides thoas ssp. brasiliensis.(Rothschild & Jordan, 1906). Caranavi Highlands, Yungas, Bolivia  january 28, 2019. Photographer; Peter Møllmann

Heraclides androgeus.  Caranavi d. 8 january 2010.Photographer; Lars Andersen

Heraclides androgeus. Caranavi d. 8 january 2010.Photographer; Lars Andersen

Bjergsvalehale, Heraclides paeon i flugt. Teknik; løb med kameraet helt op i sommerfuglen og serieskyde.. Kori Wayku inca trail, Yungas, Bolivia d. 1 februar 2010. Fotograf; Lars Andersen

Mountain Swallowtail, Heraclides paeon in flight. Kori Wayku inca trail, Yungas, Bolivia on 1th. february 2010. Photographer; Lars Andersen

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Genus Pterourus (Scopoli, 1777)

Pterourus menatius lenaeus (E. Doubleday, 1846). Tocana, Yungas, Bolivia. d. 23 januar 2006. Fotograf: Lars Andersen

Pterourus: the taxonomy of North and South American 'Papilio' genus/species has recently been revised, with the effect that almost all South American species and several North American species have been transferred to Heraclides, 33 species, or in Pterourus, 29 species.

Comprises of 29 species from southern Alaska, Canada, United States, Mexico, Central America, Amazonas rainforest up to Andean cloudforest, and south to Misiones in Northern Argentina and Paraguay in Southern America.

Habitats: This family in Soutamerica are found in tropical rainforest at altitudes between sea level and about 1400m. The Northamerican species are in open woodland, at altitudes between 0-1500m.

Males seen flying high in the canopy, where they visit the flowers, the hilltopping on hills, small mountains and the highest trees in the forest. Where females come to mate.

Males are often seen along the river beaches and dry river beds, imbibing mineralized moisture. They are regel seen singly.

The larvae feed on foodplants which include Almond, Cherry, Pearch and Plum, Prunus species. Hawthorn, Crataegus. Apple, Malus (Rosaceae). Poplar, Aspen and Cottonwood, Populus (Salicaceae). Maple, Acer (Aceracaea). Basswood, Tilia (Tiliaceae), Hornbeams, Carpinus. Alder, Alnus (Betulaceae). Tulip Tree, Liriodendron (Magnoliaceae) and various other trees and shrubs.

Pterourus neyi (Niepelt, 1909). Tena, Ecuador d. 3 january 2020. Photographer; Henrik BlochPterourus zagreus chrysomelus. Caranavi d. 8 january 2010. Photographer; Lars Andersen Black Mimic Swallowtail, Pterourus bachus chrysomelus (Rothschild & Jordan, 1906) , en Svalehale som deler udseende med den forgående heliconidae, på vejen imellem Yolosa og Caranavi, Yungas, Bolivia. 800 m.h. 11 Januar 2005. Fotograf: Lars AndersenPterourus menatius lenaeus. Taipiplaya, Caranavi, elev. 800 m. d.  26 January 2012. Photographer: Lars AndersenPterourus warscewiczii. Caranavi d. 13 january 2010. Photographer, Lars Andersen

Neyi Swallowtail Mimic Swallowtail Black Mimic Swallowtail Nomad Swallowtail Cloud Forest Swallowtail
Pterourus neyi Pterourus zagreus Pterourus bachus Pterourus menatius Pterourus warscewiczii
(Niepelt, 1909) (Fruhstorfer, 1915) (Rothschild & Jordan, 1906) (E. Doubleday, 1846) (Hopffer, 1846)
Photographer; Henrik Bloch Photographer; Lars Andersen Photographer; Lars Andersen Photographer; Lars Andersen Photographer; Peter Møllmann

 

Pterourus neyi (Niepelt, 1909). Tena, Ecuador d. 3 january 2020. Photographer; Henrik Bloch

Neyi Swallowtail, Pterourus neyi (Niepelt, 1909). Tena, Ecuador d. 3 january 2020. Photographer; Henrik Bloch

 

Savage River, Maryland, USA d. 30 april 2011. Photographer; Carsten SiemsSalt Lake City,  Utah, USA d. 19 july 2012. Photographer; Carsten SiemsTwo-tailed Swallowtail, Papilio multicaudata. North Rim, Grand Canyon, Arizona d. 7 august 2012. Fotograf; Henrik S. Larsen

Eastern Tiger Swallowtail Western Tiger Swallowtail Two-tailed Swallowtail
Pterourus glaucus Pterourus rutulus Pterourus multicaudata
(Linnaeus, 1758) (Lucas, 1852) (W. F. Kirby, 1884)
Photographer; Carsten Siems Photographer; Carsten Siems Photographer; Henrik S. Larsen

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Genus Papilio (Linnaeus, 1758)

Baird's' Swallowtail, Papilio machaon bairdii (W. H. Edwards, 1866).  North Rim,  Gran Canyon, southern Rocky Mountains, Arizona, USA d. 6  august 2012. Photographer; Henrik S. Larsen

Papilio: back in the 18th century when Linnaeus created the "System Naturae", the word "Papilio" was used as the genus name for every known species of butterfly in the world. Since then much has been learnt about the relationships between different species.

Consequently most have been reassigned to new genera, and only about 215 swallowtails of the 17680 currently known butterflies species are retained in Papilio genus.

There are still 8 species of Papilio in Nearctic and Neotropical region. Wherein one species Old World Swallowtail, Papilio machaon are found from Alaska, Canada, California and east to Colorado. Black Swallowtail, Papilio polyxenes are more widespread from Canada, USA, Mexico, Caribbean, Central America, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru Andean mountains.

Habitats: Throughout most of it's range the Swallowtail shows itself to be highly adaptable, utilising a wide variety of habitats including sub-arctic tundra in Canada, prairies, woodlands and sagebrush in the south of the USA; hay meadows, roadside verges and river banks.

You can see the swallowtails in the marsh where the fodder plant grows, but after a time they fly on the flower-rich meadows, coastal cliffs and commons, where they are avid flower visitors. Hill-toping of hills and mountain sides.

The larvae feed on foodplants which include Mugwort, Wormwood, and Sagebrush, Artemesia family or Butterbur, Petasites (Asteraceae), although various Anise, Angelica, Carrot, Coriander, Dill and Fennel, Umbelliferae family e.g. Hogweed, Heracleum are used in the Yukon.

Baird's' Swallowtail, Papilio machaon bairdii (W. H. Edwards, 1866).  North Rim,  Gran Canyon, southern Rocky Mountains, Arizona, USA d. 6  august 2012. Photographer; Henrik S. Larsen

Baird's Swallowtail
Papilio machaon bairdii
(W. H. Edwards, 1866)
Photographer; Henrik S. Larsen

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Mariposas de Bolivia

Butterflies in Northern America