|Scandinavian Landscape; includes Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and the Åland Islands are part of
northern Europe. It has been found 142 species
butterflies with few immigration species from the
south and east. It is very rare that there is
migration from the west as the North Sea and the
Atlantic is a difficult hurdle to pass.
Scandinavia contains several climatic zones, with
deciduous forests and grasslands in the south,
coniferous forests and swamps midway, mountains
and rocky coastlines in the west and tundra in
the north where summer is very short and some
Cultural Landscape; is characterized
by human activities. It is land that ruderal
habitats, roadsides, cultivated fields, gardens
and parks. As found everywhere in Scandinavia.
However, less common in northern Scandinavia, as
the climate is harder on cultivated land.
Cultivated fields; disturbed land, ruderal,
cultivated fields with Cabbage, Rape, Sennerp,
Lucerne and Clover
Bush, Common Michaelmas
Daisy, Pelargonium, Snowcap, Common Vervain, Indian Cress, Ox-eye Daisy, Gentian Sage, Thyme, Lantana, Nettle, Common Hop, Giant Goldenrod, Loganberry and Cherry Plum can be seen common butterflies.
butterflies such as; Essex
White, Small White, Small Blue, Holly Blue, Brown Argus, Common Blue, Small Copper, White Letter Hairstreak, Peacock, Small
Tortoiseshell, Comma and Meadow Brown.
the Cultural Landscape of southern Sweden and
Denmark there are
immigrant butterflies such as; Eastern Bath White, Pale Clouded Yellow, Clouded Yellow, Queen of Spain Fritillary, Red Admiral and Painted Lady.
Meadows and Swamp
are part of central Europe which is found from
the Pyrenees and the Alps in the north to the
south of Denmark and Sweden. In Denmark and
southwestern Sweden is characterized by mild
rainy winter where it rarely drops below
freezing. In deciduous forests are Goat Willow, White Willow, Elm, Ash, Aspen,
Oak, Sweet Chestnut, Spindle,
Buckthorn, Blackthorn, Wild Cherry and Hawthorn.
butterflies such as; Large
Chequered Skipper, Large
White Letter Hairstreak, Purple Hairstreak, Silver Washed Fritillary, Map Butterfly, Peacock, Heath
Lesser Purple Emperor, White Admiral, Speckled Wood and Ringlet.
Oak scrub; Found in Jutland and Southern
Sweden, where the soil is poor in nutrients, has
formed oak scrub with multiple stems, gnarled,
low and creeping trees. In the light and open
undergrowth grow Common Cow-wheat, Small
and various grasses such as Creeping
butterflies such as; Ilex
Fritillary & Pearly Heath.
Wood Meadows; As neither plowed or sown.
Grasses are the dominant with a variety of
flowering plants and shrubs. There may be gently
grazing and hay harvesting in late summer. The
wood meadows and clearings grow Garlic
Sorrel, Valeriana, Yellow Meadow-rue, Meadowsweet, Nettle and various sedges and grasses.
butterflies as: Orange
Tip, Green Veined White, Brimstone, Amanda's
Blue, Scarce Copper, Purple Edged Copper, Lesser Marbled Fritillary, Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary, False-heath Fritilary and Scarce Heath.
Calcareous Meadows; where hazel bushes felled for
firewood and fence, and moderet grazed by cattle.
With an herbal rich undergrowth with Primroses, Strawberry, Cinquefoil and Bird-in-a-Bush. Located best on
calcareous and limestone soils.
butterflies such as; Grizzled
Clouded Apollo, Black Hairstreak, Duke of Burgundy Fritillary, High Brown Fritillary and False-heath Fritilary.
Grassland; with Meadows and Moor. Grassland are areas where the vegetation is
dominated by grasses and are grazed by horses, cows
and sheep. Often the hilly terrain is not
suitable for general farming. There may be a
particularly rich flora and associated fauna.
Grassland is under pressure from modern
agriculture, is one of the most endangered nature
There are butterflies
such as; Essex
Small Skipper, Large Skipper, Small White, Silver Studded Blue, Mazarine Blue, Amanda's Blue, Small Copper, Purple Edged Copper, Dark Green Fritillary, Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary, Glanville Fritillary, Meadow Brown and Small Heath.
Cliffs and Dunes; are constant soil errosion
providing space for open-land and heat-demanding
species that can tolerate salt concentrations and
habitat sharing plant and insect communities in
coastal grasslands found in southern Sweden and
On the sandy coastal inclines in Denmark and Sweden can see
butterflies fly far into October-November. There
are butterflies such as; Dingy Skipper, Oberthur's Grizzled
Brown Argus, Mountain Argus, Sooty Copper, Small Copper, Niobe Fritillary, Queen of Spain Fritillary and Grayling.
Calcareous soils; Alkaline / alkaline soils. Are
rich in calcium carbonate. (Limestone). A
calcareous grasslands as Høvbleget on Moen in
hills and coastal
southern Sweden and Denmark, there are
Grizzled Skipper, Silver
Spotted Skipper, Large
Blue, Turquoise Blue, High Brown Fritillary, Glanville Fritillary, Wall Brown and Small Heath.
Heath; with Meadows and Moor. Is the man-made nature.
Most often formed on degraded dry, acidic soil
and is dominated by Heather, Bog
Bilberry, Willow or similar semi-shrubs.
On the moor there is moist hollows with ponds and
bogs. In ruts seen that Gentian and Scabious as host plant for some
fine butterflies. Heath was created for men in
the run up to the Middle Ages deforested and has
in Denmark long been a typical Jutland natural
form, especially concentrated in this region
meager soils in the northern and western areas.
There are butterflies
such as; Silver
Spotted Skipper, Swallowtail, Black Veined White, Alcon Blue, Idas Blue, Silver
Studded Blue, Niobe
Fritillary and Marsh
Damp Moorland; ind
southern Skandinavia where the habitats are
clothed in Cottongrass, Cranberry an Bog Bilberry.
There are butterflies
such as; Moorland
Clouded Yellow, Cranberry
Blue, Green Hairstreak, Cranberry Fritillary & Large Heath.
Mixed deciduous forests; are found in the middle and
eastern Sweden and Finland where there is a
continental climate with sunny summer and cold
winters. Some areas dominated by coniferous trees
such as Fir and Pine, other deciduous trees such as Aspen, Hornbeam, Hazel, Rowan, Crab
Apple, Birch, Willow and Oak.
butterflies such as; Clouded Apollo, Chequered Skipper, Northern Chequered
Cryptic Wood White, Wood White, Holly Blue, Green-underside Blue, Reverdin's Blue, Scarce Copper, Silver Washed Fritillary, Pallas's Fritillary, High Brown Fritillary, Pearl-bordered Fritillary, Titania's
Fritillary, Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary, Small Tortoiseshell, Camberwell Beauty, Large Tortoiseshell, Scarce Tortoiseshell, Comma, Scarce Fritillary, Heath Fritillary, Assmann's Fritillary, Poplar Admiral, Speckled Wood, Large Wall Brown, Woodland Brown and Arran Brown.
Agriculture; In southern Scandinavia
in Denmark, Norway and Sweden pressed butterflies
of modern agriculture, forestry and urbanization.
Here are several
butterflies close to disappearing; Clouded Apollo, Reverdin's Blue, Pearl-bordered Fritillary, Scarce Fritillary, Assmann's Fritillary and Scarce Heath.
Mountains and Rocky Coastlines which consists of granites,
basalts, quartz-rich sandstone and limestone are
common rock types that contain different specific
minerals. Offer unique environment where there
can be very hot in summer. Here are some
butterflies that would otherwise be down to the
Alps to see. This is particularly warm
microclimate in summer on the southwest-facing
mountains in Norway and Sweden rocky coastlines
which contains an herbal rich flora.
rocky coast found along the Norwegian and Swedish
archipelago along the Kattegat and the Baltic Sea
and the northern coast of the island. Consists of
basic stone, or stone with lesser amount of
alkaline minerals. On the west coast north of
Göteborg can seashells spread by birds, make
sour stone to good habitat of Beach Angelica, Orphan John, Hylotelephium telephium and White Stonecrop, Sedum alba.
In the Norwegian and
Swedish archipelago there are butterflies such as; Apollo, Swallowtail and Chequered Blue.
southern Norway and Sweden under treeline grow Pine, Fir, Birch, Aspen,
Willow and Rowan.
In the undergrowth are Heather, Cranberries, Blueberries, Cow-wheat, Alpine Mouse-ear, Orphan John, Wood Geranium, Ferns
up to the tree line in the southern mountains of Norway and Sweden,
there are butterflies; Apollo, Silver
Spotted Skipper, Wood
White, Mountain Argus, Geranium Argus, Bog Fritillary, Heath Fritillary, Large Wall Brown, Arran Brown and Rock Grayling.
Mountains; in southern
Norway and Sweden above the tree line grow Crowberry, Bog Bilberry, Roseroot, Pyramidal
Saxifrage, Alpine Milkvetch, Rock Speedwell, Common Cinquefoil, various sedges
and grasses as Alpine Meadow-grass.
In the southern mountains above the tree line in Norway and Sweden, there are
butterflies; Large Grizzled Skipper, Alpine Argus, Mountain Fritillary and Dewy Ringlet.
forests, Meadows and Swamps; are part of the Taiga stretches
circumpolar from Siberia over to Canada is
characterized by continental climate with hot
summer and extreme cold in winter. To the south,
in the mixed part deciduous forest such as Pine, Fir, Birch, Willow
and Rowan. In forest clearings, moors and
heaths grow Globe Flower, Monkshood, Violet, Heather, Cranberry, Bilberry, Cowberry, Bog Rosemary, Wintergreen, Cloudberry, Lady Mantle, Wood Cranesbill, Marsh Tea, Twinflower, Cotton Grass and various Sedges and Grasses.
There are butterflies
such as; Swallowtail, Northern Grizzled Skipper, Chequered Skipper, Wood White, Silvery Argus, Violet Copper, Frigga's Fritillary, Camberwell Beauty, Northern Wall Brown and Baltic Grayling.
Moorland; ind northern Skandinavia where
the habitats are often clothed with Cottongrass,
Marsh Tea and Cloudberry. There are butterflies
such as; Moorland
Clouded Yellow, Cranberry
Blue, Freija's Fritillary, Bog Fritillary, Frigga's Fritillary, Cranberry Fritillary, Lapland Ringlet & Large Heath.
Birch Forest; below the tree line in the middle
and northern mountains of Sweden and Norway as
the continental climate. In the undergrowth says Ferns, Globe
Parsley, Red Campion and Mountain
butterflies such as; Idas
Blue, Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary, Pearl-bordered Fritillary, Thore's Fritillary, Camberwell Beauty and Arctic Ringlet.
Arctic; tundra climate zone extending
from Scandinavia, Siberia across the North
America to Greenland. In the tundra there are no
trees, only small low willow and birch, as well
as various low heather plants and grass. Often
several of these butterflies on the tundra with
2-year life cycle.
Mountains; of northern
dominated by mountain heath and tundra in arid
regions from 600 meters above sea level to 1700 m
Are the eternal snow on the north side. In the
south and southwest side, where the snow is gone
in the summer grow Dwarf Willow, Alpine Bistort, Alpine Milk-vetch, Mountain Avens, Velvet Bells, Diapensia, Purple Saxifrage, Alpine Bearberry, Crowberry, Arctic Bell-heather, Common Cinquefoil, Moss Campion and various sedges and grasses as Alpine
Tundra above the tree line there are butterflies such as; Pale Arctic Clouded Yellow, Polar Fritillary, Freija's Fritillary, Lappland Fritillary, Norse Grayling and Arctic Grayling.
the tree line in northern
Norway and Sweden there are butterflies such as; Alpine Grizzled Skipper, Arctic Clouded Yellow, Arctic Blue, Mountain Fritillary, Arctic Fritillary, Dusky-winged Fritillary and Dewy Ringlet.
Climate; in Scandinavia for the
last 20 years has caused butterflies to move
north. Butterflies have their southern border of
their distribution in Denmark and northern
Germany are disappearing as Large Heath. And while seeing the
Scandinavian mountains and arctic the climate
warms and there with pressed butterflies to the
north and up in height.
And there is in
southern Denmark, Sweden and Finland immigrated
butterflies from the Baltic States, Poland and
Germany that can settle and form populations in
longer or shorter time as; Large Chequered Skipper, Brown Argus, Sooty Copper, Weaver's Fritillary, Map Butterfly, Scarce Tortoiseshell, Purple Emperor, Lesser Purple Emperor and Speckled Wood.